Anopheles is a genus of mosquito (Culicidae). There are approximately 400 Anopheles species, of which 30-40 transmit four different species of parasites of the genus Plasmodium that cause malaria which affects humans in endemic areas. Anopheles gambiae is one of the best known, because of its predominant role in the transmission of the most dangerous Plasmodium falciparum.Some species of Anopheles also can serve as the vectors for canine heartworm Dirofilaria immitis, the Filariidae Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, and viruses like the one that is the cause of O'nyong'nyong fever.Mosquitoes in other genera (Aedes, Culex) can also serve as vectors of disease agents.
Like all mosquitoes, anophelines go through four stages in their life cycle: egg, larva, pupa, and imago. The first three stages are aquatic and last 5-14 days, depending on the species and the ambient temperature. The adult stage is when the female Anopheles mosquito acts as malaria vector. The adult f