Epinephrine (also referred to as adrenaline; see Terminology) is a hormone and neurotransmitter.Epinephrine increases the "fight or flight" response of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.It is a catecholamine, a sympathomimetic monoamine derived from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. The Latin roots ad-+renes and the Greek roots epi-+nephros both literally mean "on/to the kidney" (referring to the adrenal gland, which sits atop the kidneys and secretes epinephrine). Epinephrine is often shortened to E or to EPI in Medical jargon.
Epinephrine was isolated and identified in 1895 by Napoleon Cybulski, a Polish physiologist. In May 1896, William Bates reported the discovery of a substance produced by the adrenal gland in the New York Medical Journal.Jokichi Takamine, a Japanese chemist, independently discovered the same hormone in 1900. In 1901 he isolated and purified the hormone epinephrine from cow glands.Epinephrine was first artificially synth